Macrophage LRP1 contributes to the clearance of von Willebrand factor.
INSERM U770, Université Paris Sud, 80 rue du Général Leclerc, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
The relationship between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) has remained elusive for years. Indeed, despite a reported absence of interaction between both proteins, liver-specific deletion of LRP1 results in increased VWF levels. To investigate this discrepancy, we used mice with a macrophage-specific deficiency of LRP1 (macLRP1(-)) because we previously found that macrophages dominate VWF clearance. Basal VWF levels were increased in macLRP1(-) mice compared with control mice (1.6 ± 0.4 vs 1.0 ± 0.4 U/mL). Clearance experiments revealed that half-life of human VWF was significantly increased in macLRP1(-) mice. Ubiquitous blocking of LRP1 or additional lipoprotein receptors by overexpressing receptor-associated protein in macLRP1(-) mice did not result in further rise of VWF levels (0.1 ± 0.2 U/mL), in contrast to macLRP1(+) mice (rise in VWF, 0.8 ± 0.4 U/mL). This points to macLRP1 being the only lipoprotein receptor regulating VWF levels. When testing the mechanism(s) involved, we observed that VWF-coated beads adhered efficiently to LRP1 but only when exposed to shear forces exceeding 2.5 dyne/cm(2), implying the existence of shear stress-dependent interactions. Furthermore, a mechanism involving β2-integrins that binds both VWF and LRP1 also is implicated because inhibition of β2-integrins led to increased VWF levels in control (rise, 0.19 ± 0.16 U/mL) but not in macLRP1(-) mice (0.08 ± 0.15 U/mL).