Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its metabolite, adenosine, are key regulators of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions. PMNs have recently been implicated in the initiation of thrombosis. We investigated the role of ATP and adenosine in PMN activation and recruitment at the site of endothelial injury. Following binding to the injured vessel wall, PMNs are activated and release elastase. The recruitment of PMNs and the subsequent fibrin generation and thrombus formation are strongly affected in mice deficient in the P2X1-ATP receptor and in wild-type (WT) mice treated with CGS 21680, an agonist of the A2A adenosine receptor or NF449, a P2X1 antagonist. Infusion of WT PMNs into P2X1-deficient mice increases fibrin generation but not thrombus formation. Restoration of thrombosis requires infusion of both platelets and PMNs from WT mice. In vitro, ATP activates PMNs, whereas CGS 21680 prevents their binding to activated endothelial cells. These data indicate that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contributes to polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation leading to their adhesion at the site of laser-induced endothelial injury, a necessary step leading to the generation of fibrin, and subsequent platelet-dependent thrombus formation. Altogether, our study identifies previously unknown mechanisms by which ATP and adenosine are key molecules involved in thrombosis by regulating the activation state of PMNs.