The Slit family of secreted proteins act as axonal repellents during embryogenesis. Slit2 via its receptor, Roundabout-1, also inhibits chemotaxis of multiple leukocyte subsets. Using static and microfluidic shear assays, we found that Slit2 inhibited multiple steps required to recruit circulating neutrophils. Slit2 blocked capture and firm adhesion of human neutrophils to and transmigration across inflamed primary vascular endothelial cells. To determine the response of Slit2 in renal ischemia reperfsuion injury, Slit2 was administered prior to bilateral renal pedicle clamping in mice. This led to significant decreases in both renal tubular necrosis score and neutrophil infiltration. Administration of Slit2 also prevented elevation of plasma creatinine following injury in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, administration of Slit2 did not increase hepatic bacterial load in mice infected with L.monocytogenes infection. Collectively, these data demonstrate Slit2 as an exciting therapeutic molecule to combat renal ischemia reperfusion injury without compromising protective host innate immune functions.