Marchand, S., De Block, J., De Jonghe, V., Coorevits, A., Heyndrickx, M. and Herman, L. (2012), Biofilm Formation in Milk Production and Processing Environments; Influence on Milk Quality and Safety. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11: 133–147. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00183.x
Bacteria in milk have the ability to adhere and aggregate on stainless steel surfaces, resulting in biofilm formation in milk storage tanks and milk process lines. Growth of biofilms in milk processing environments leads to increased opportunity for microbial contamination of the processed dairy products. These biofilms may contain spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Bacteria within biofilms are protected from sanitizers due to multispecies cooperation and the presence of extracellular polymeric substances, by which their survival and subsequent contamination of processed milk products is promoted. This paper reviews the most critical factors in biofilm formation, with special attention to pseudomonads, the predominant spoilage bacteria originating from raw milk. Biofilm interactions between pseudomonads and milk pathogens are also addressed, as emerging risks and future research perspectives, specifically related to the milk processing environment.